This occupation has a near certain probability of automation.

98.0% probability

of automation

7.4% growth

projected to 2026

21,100 employed

currently in the US

$35,540 annual wage

US, median

What they do

Officiate at competitive athletic or sporting events. Detect infractions of rules and decide penalties according to established regulations. Includes all sporting officials, referees, and competition judges.

Risk of automation

This occupation is 98.0% likely to be automated. It ranks 684 of 702 occupations analyzed (higher rank means higher likelihood).

People affected and economic value

In the US, 21,100 people have this job. They earn $35,540 per year on average (the mean annual wage). The occupation therefore represents $749,894,000 in annual economic value.

Official growth forecast

This occupation is projected to grow 7.4% between 2016 and 2026. At this rate, there would be 22,700 people with this job at that time.

References and notes

This article uses data from "The Future of Employment" (PDF), a 2013 study from University of Oxford researchers, and US Bureau of Labor Statistics files including Standard Occupational Classification 2010 Definitions (XLS), May 2016 Occupational Employment Statistics (zip) and 2016-2026 Employment Projections (XLS).