This occupation has an extremely high probability of automation.
$33,270 annual wage
What they do
Bind books and other publications or finish printed products by hand or machine. May set up binding and finishing machines.
Risk of automation
This occupation is 95.0% likely to be automated. It ranks 618 of 702 occupations analyzed (higher rank means higher likelihood).
People affected and economic value
In the US, 54,000 people have this job. They earn $33,270 per year on average (the mean annual wage). The occupation therefore represents $1,796,580,000 in annual economic value. The mean hourly wage for this occupation is $16.
Official growth forecast
This occupation is projected to shrink -11.3% between 2016 and 2026. At this rate, there would be 47,900 people with this job at that time.
References and notes
This article uses data from "The Future of Employment" (PDF), a 2013 study from University of Oxford researchers, and US Bureau of Labor Statistics files including Standard Occupational Classification 2010 Definitions (XLS), May 2016 Occupational Employment Statistics (zip) and 2016-2026 Employment Projections (XLS).