This occupation has a very high probability of automation.

85.0% probability

of automation

7.6% growth

projected to 2026

2,628,400 employed

currently in the US

$28,720 annual wage

US, median ($13.81 hourly)

What they do

Manually move freight, stock, or other materials or perform other general labor. Includes all manual laborers not elsewhere classified. Excludes “Material Moving Workers" (53-7011 through 53-7199) who use power equipment. Excludes “Construction Laborers" (47-2061) and "Helpers, Construction Trades (47-3011 through 47-3019).

Risk of automation

This occupation is 85.0% likely to be automated. It ranks 483 of 702 occupations analyzed (higher rank means higher likelihood).

People affected and economic value

In the US, 2,628,400 people have this job. They earn $28,720 per year on average (the mean annual wage). The occupation therefore represents $75,487,648,000 in annual economic value. The mean hourly wage for this occupation is $13.81.

Official growth forecast

This occupation is projected to grow 7.6% between 2016 and 2026. At this rate, there would be 2,829,200 people with this job at that time.

References and notes

This article uses data from "The Future of Employment" (PDF), a 2013 study from University of Oxford researchers, and US Bureau of Labor Statistics files including Standard Occupational Classification 2010 Definitions (XLS), May 2016 Occupational Employment Statistics (zip) and 2016-2026 Employment Projections (XLS).