This occupation has an extremely low probability of automation.

2.7% probability

of automation

11.3% growth

projected to 2026

31,500 employed

currently in the US

$94,340 annual wage

US, median ($45.36 hourly)

What they do

Study the chemical composition or physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena. May conduct research to further understanding of the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. May determine the effects of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms.

Risk of automation

This occupation is 2.7% likely to be automated. It ranks 99 of 702 occupations analyzed (higher rank means higher likelihood).

People affected and economic value

In the US, 31,500 people have this job. They earn $94,340 per year on average (the mean annual wage). The occupation therefore represents $2,971,710,000 in annual economic value. The mean hourly wage for this occupation is $45.36.

Official growth forecast

This occupation is projected to grow 11.3% between 2016 and 2026. At this rate, there would be 35,000 people with this job at that time.

References and notes

This article uses data from "The Future of Employment" (PDF), a 2013 study from University of Oxford researchers, and US Bureau of Labor Statistics files including Standard Occupational Classification 2010 Definitions (XLS), May 2016 Occupational Employment Statistics (zip) and 2016-2026 Employment Projections (XLS).