This occupation has an extremely high probability of automation.

95.0% probability

of automation

-2.7% growth

projected to 2026

17,000 employed

currently in the US

$34,610 annual wage

US, median ($16.64 hourly)

What they do

Operate or tend bonding machines that use adhesives to join items for further processing or to form a completed product. Processes include joining veneer sheets into plywood; gluing paper; or joining rubber and rubberized fabric parts, plastic, simulated leather, or other materials. Excludes “Shoe Machine Operators and Tenders" (51-6042).

Risk of automation

This occupation is 95.0% likely to be automated. It ranks 622 of 702 occupations analyzed (higher rank means higher likelihood).

People affected and economic value

In the US, 17,000 people have this job. They earn $34,610 per year on average (the mean annual wage). The occupation therefore represents $588,370,000 in annual economic value. The mean hourly wage for this occupation is $16.64.

Official growth forecast

This occupation is projected to shrink -2.7% between 2016 and 2026. At this rate, there would be 16,600 people with this job at that time.

References and notes

This article uses data from "The Future of Employment" (PDF), a 2013 study from University of Oxford researchers, and US Bureau of Labor Statistics files including Standard Occupational Classification 2010 Definitions (XLS), May 2016 Occupational Employment Statistics (zip) and 2016-2026 Employment Projections (XLS).